Security correspondent, BBC News
Publishedduration1 day agoimage copyrightGetty Images
In cyber-space, a strong defence should take precedence over arming ourselves with new weapons, the UK's National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC)'s ex-chief has warned.
Ciaran Martin added that we "weaponise" and "militarise the internet at our peril".
His remarks follow reports of the use of offensive cyber-techniques by nations, including the UK.
Mr Martin said he was not a digital pacifist, but he urged restraint.
"The case for cyber-restraint is a hard-headed one," he said in a lecture to the Strand Group, part of King's College.
"A more secure digital environment is the best guarantor of safety and security for Western countries in the digital age."