What is QAnon? The bizarre conspiracy theory fuelling many in Donald Trump’s riot mob

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Among the mass of banners and flags held by the mob who laid siege to the US Capitol last night was one repeated letter – Q.

As well as being devotees of the President, many of the rioters were followers of QAnon – a bizarre conspiracy theory which claims Trump has been sent to the world from a satanic child abuse cult operating at the heart of government.

Over the years, with the false theory spreading like wildfire online, Trump has refused to disavow it – either claiming he didn't know anything about it or saying they were "very much against paedophilia", and that he agreed with that.

Some storming the Capitol last night believed the event was the culmination of the "Great Awakening" – where those involved in the alleged paedophile ring, including top officials and congresspeople, would be arrested and removed from office.

Asked during a TV Q&A during the election campaign if he knew whether there was a satanic paedophile cult operating in Washington, President Trump said: "I don't know that. And neither do you."

Here's what you need to know about QAnon.

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What is QAnon?

Q banners were littered throughout the crowd
(Image: Starmax/PA Images)

QAnon started as a series of hoax posts on 4Chan – a disreputable and chaotic message board.

Its followers espouse an intertwined series of beliefs, based on anonymous web postings from "Q," who claims to have insider knowledge of the Trump administration.

A core tenet of the conspiracy theory is that U.S. President Donald Trump is secretly fighting a cabal of child-sex predators that includes prominent Democrats, Hollywood elites and "deep state" allies.

QAnon, which borrows some elements from the bogus "pizzagate" theory about a pedophile ring run out of a Washington restaurant, has become a "big tent" conspiracy theory encompassing misinformation about topics ranging from alien landings to vaccine safety.

Followers of QAnon say a so-called Great Awakening is coming to bring salvation.

How has it spread online?

A Q supporter at yesterday's "Stop the Steal" rally in Washington DC
(Image: Getty Images)

The 'Q' posts, which started in 2017 on the message board 4chan, are now posted on 8kun, a rebranded version of the shuttered web board 8chan.

QAnon has been amplified on Twitter, Facebook, Instagram and YouTube.

And while the original posts were targeted at young, angry internet natives, their shift to mainstream social networks has seen them adopted with great enthusiasm by older generations.

Media investigations have shown that social media recommendation algorithms can drive people who show an interest in conspiracy theories towards more material.

A report by the Institute for Strategic Dialogue (ISD) found that the number of users engaging in discussion of QAnon on Twitter and Facebook have surged this year, with membership of QAnon groups on Facebook growing 120 percent in March.

Researchers say that Russian government-supported organizations are playing a small but increasing role amplifying the conspiracy theories.

QAnon backers helped to organize real-life protests against child trafficking in August and were involved in a pro-police demonstration in Portland, Oregon.

QAnon has also gained a toehold in the U.S. House of Representatives, with at least one Republican candidate who believes the theory winning a seat in November's election.

Has it gained any traction in the UK?

Q followers at a 'yellow vest' protest in Manchester
(Image: Joel Goodman)

Some.

Elements in the "Yellow Jackets" protests in 2019 were influenced by Q theories to an extent.

Some of those protesting were seen holding signs and wearing clothes bearing the code "WWG1WGA" – which means "Where We Go One, We Go All", and is a Q related slogan.

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What are Twitter and Facebook doing about it?

QAnon supporters were among the people who laid siege to the Capitol
(Image: Getty Images)

Twitter in July said it would stop recommending QAnon content and accounts in a crackdown it expected would affect about 150,000 accounts. It also said it would block QAnon URLs and permanently suspend QAnon accounts coordinating abuse or violating its rules.

Facebook in October said it would classify the QAnon movement as dangerous and began removing QAnon Facebook groups and pages as well as Instagram accounts.

The step escalated Facebook's move in August to remove pages, groups and Instagram accounts linked with QAnon that discussed potential violence, while restricting the reach of others. In September, it banned ads that praised or represented militarized social movements and QAnon.

A spokeswoman for the short-form video app TikTok said QAnon content "frequently contains disinformation and hate speech" and that it has blocked dozens of QAnon hashtags.

A Reddit spokeswoman said the site has removed QAnon communities that repeatedly violated its rules since 2018, when it took down forums such as r/greatawakening.

A YouTube spokeswoman said it has removed tens of thousands of Q-related videos and terminated hundreds of Q-related channels for violating its rules since updating its hate speech policy in June 2019.

YouTube also said it reduces its recommendations of certain QAnon videos that "could misinform users in harmful ways." It does not have a specific ban on monetizing QAnon content. ISD researchers found that about 20 percent of all QAnon-related Facebook posts contained YouTube links.

Reviews of major e-commerce sites Amazon.com Inc and Etsy Inc show sellers listing QAnon-branded items ranging from books to T-shirts and face masks.

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